Cannabidiol (CBD), which is a naturally occurring compound found in the cannabis plant, has been in the news lately for its medicinal benefits, including multiple sclerosis pain and epilepsy use. However, only a few know how this oil is extracted.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Extraction
First, the hemp plant is harvested and dried. Then, it is ground up in preparation for oil extraction. The grounds are then poured into a vessel attached to the supercritical (or subcritical) CO2 extraction equipment.
CO2 extraction filters small quantities of hemp plants through three chambers that control pressure and temperature. The first chamber has dry ice or pressurized CO2, while the second chamber houses the dry plant material. As for the third chamber, it separates the finished product. The process, when applied to cannabis plants, isolates the cannabinoids.
The extraction process involves pumping the solid CO2 from the first chamber to the second chamber with the dry plant material. Then, it is pumped into the third chamber using a higher temperature and lower pressure. This CBD Oil hemp extraction type isolates cannabinoids at a 90% efficiency rate.
After several hours, the extracted oil and waxes are pulled from the vessel. This resembles a golden paste. It is then refrigerated to remove the plant waxes. After which, a high-performance liquid chromatography equipment will be used to analyze the cannabinoid potency and content of the CBD oil.
Olive Oil Extraction
This type of extraction uses oils like olive oil to soak hemp plants. The raw plant material must first be heated or decarboxylated, to activate the chemicals in it. Then, it is added to the oil and heated for 1-2 hours at 100°C to extract the cannabinoids. After the oil has been infused in the mixture, it must be kept in a cool, dark place because it is perishable.
Cultivated cannabis plants are brought to an extraction facility. Then, the solvents Ethanol, butane, isopropyl alcohol, or hexane are introduced to the hemp plant to extract the cannabinoids. The liquid will evaporate from the mixture and leave behind the concentrated CBD oil. This type of extraction produces a high volume of full spectrum extract. It also removes unwanted components from dried hemp, such as chlorophyll. This is the most common method of extracting CBD because it is simple, inexpensive, and it does not use the complicated equipment.
Lipid-based extractions use heat, pressure, and time to diffuse the active cannabinoids into fat or a lipid. It involves heating the decarboxylated plant and the oil or fat over a stove or water bath. Once it has reached the ideal temperature, it is left to sit and bind to the lipids. After cooling, the process of heating it again is repeated to allow more cannabinoids to bind.
These extraction methods produce CBD oils that are used for sublingual sprays, topicals, capsules, edibles, and other medicinal products. However, one has to keep in mind that while cannabidiol is well-tolerated, it may still cause some adverse effects including diarrhoea, tiredness, and changes in appetite. It may also cause fatigue, sleepiness or insomnia.
Make sure to choose only organically grown hemp that has been dried and cured properly. This ensures that the hemp is free from heavy metals, pesticides or chemical fertilizers. Also, when purchasing CBD extracts, it is important to always ask for certificates of quality.